您现在的位置:首页 > >

专四常考语法点汇总_图文

发布时间:

.

语法与词汇专项 语法核心考点一:从属分句 复合句= 主句+从句(1 个或 1 个以上) 要点 1 从属分句是复合句必不可少的组成部分,以语法功能作为分类标准,从 属分句可以分为状语从句、关系从句(即定语从句)和名词性从句。其中状语从 句可分为时间、地点、原因、结果、程度、目的、条件、让步和方式等;名词性 从句可分为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句。 要点 2 状语从句的考点集中在方式、条件、让步、方式和时间状语从句上;关 系从句的考点集中在关系代词的选择, 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区 别;名词性从句的考点集中在宾语从句和同位语从句。 一 状语从句 状语从句真题剖析: 1 Nine is to three _____ three is to one. (2008, 53) A. when B. that C. which D. what 2 ______ he wanted to go out with his friends at the weekend, he had to stay behind to finish his assignment. (2008, 55) A. Much though B. Much as C. As much D. Thouth much 3 Men differ from animals ____ they can think and speak. (2008, 54) A. for which B. for that C. in that D. in which 4 They stood chatting together as easily and naturally as ____. (2008, 60) A. it could be B. could be C. it was D. was 5 The couple had no sooner got to the station ______ the coach left. (2009,60) A. when B. as C. until D. than 6 ____ the boss says, it is unreasonable to ask me to work overtime without pay. (2010,55) A. Whatever B. Whenever C. Whichever D. However 7 Fool ____ Jerry is, he could not have done such a thing. A. who B. as C. like D. that 8 He asked me to lend him some money, which I agreed to do, ___ that he paid me back the following week. (2005) A. on occasion B. on purpose C. on condition D. only if 9 Which of the following contains an adverbial clause of cause? A. I got a job as soon as I left university. B. As there was on answer, I wrote again. C. You must do the exercise as I show you. D. Wealthy as he is, Mark is not a happy man. 状语从句重点总结: (一)条件状语从句:表示条件或假设,通常由以下连词或结构引导: If 如果 unless 如果不;除非 as long as 只要 so long as 只要
.

.

on condition that 条件是 in the event that 如果,在……的情况下 provided/providing that 假如 given that 如果 suppose/supposing that 假如 assuming (that ) 假如 say 假如 ★特别提醒 几种不常用的条件状语从句举例: In the event that she can not arrive on time, we will go first. Suppose it snowed, we would still go. Say what he said were true, what would you do about it? (二)让步状语从句:含有“虽然,尽管,即使”之意,主要引导词有: though/although 虽然 even if/even though 即使 no matter + 疑问词 无论 疑问词+ever 无论 in spite of the fact that 尽管 while 尽管 much as 不管…… 尽管…… for all that 尽管 as/though granted/granting (that ) 虽然,尽管 ★特别提醒 1. 几种不常用的让步状语从句举例: In spite of the fact that he was deaf and dumb, he had a genius for music. While the grandparents love the children, they are strict with them. Much as she needed the job, she had to refuse. For all that there were a lot of difficulties, he finally entered the final competition and won. Granted you have made much progress, you should not be conceited. 2. 用了 although 或 though,就一定不能再后面的从句中同时用 but,但是 though 可以和 yet 连用。 Although they were very tired, but they still working. (true/false ) Though they were very tired, yet they still working. (true/false ) 3. no matter +疑问词不能引导主语从句和宾语从句,可用疑问词+ever 来引导主 语从句和宾语从句。 No matter what he says has nothing to do withme. (true/false ) Whatever he says has nothing to do withme. (true/false ) The old man believes no matter what his son tells him (true/false ) The old man believes whatever his son tells him (true/false ) 4. as/though 引导的让步状语从句如果有强调的部分,通常将强调的部分置于句 首。 Young as he was/ Child as he was, he could do some housework for his mother. = Young though he was/ Child though he was, he could do some housework for his mother. = Though he was young/ Though he was a child, he could do some housework for his mother. 注意: as 引导的让步状语从句必须倒装, though 引导的可以倒装也可以不倒装。 5. for all (that)表示让步概念, “that”可以省略,相当于“in spite of”或“in spite of the fact that”,其后可接短语或从句。
.

.

For all the fine words he may say to your face, he does not like you at heart. For all (that) you say, he will not change his mind. (三)时间状语从句:表示时间关系,引导词主要有以下: 表示“当…的时候” when, while, as, just as, nest time, the last time, each time, every time, whenever 表示时间先后 before, after 表示“一……就……” As soon as, once, hardly… when/before…, scarecely…when/before, no sooner…than, directly, immediately, instantly, the moment/second/minute, 其他时间 By the time ( 到 …… 的时候 ), it is the first/second time…, not … until( 直 到……才……), ever since (自从) ★特别提醒 1 几种不常用的时间状语从句 They went into action directly/immediately/instantly/the moment they heard the alarm. 2 几种需要用完成时态的时间状语从句 By the time I got there, they had left for the airport. It is the first time that I have visited China. It was the second time that I had visited China. He had hardly escaped when/before he was captured. I had no sooner reached home than it began to rain. I have been living there all the time since I moved there in 1992. 3 否定词置于句首时注意倒装 Hardly had he escaped when he was capured. No sooner had I reached there than it began to rain. 4 when 引导时间状语从句,如果出现在后半句,可以表示“这时突然”之意。 I was almost hurt when the bus came to a sudden stop. 5 表示时间先后的连词 before 可表示条件意义, 译作 “只有/必须……才能……” New ideas sometimes have to wait for years before they are fully accepted. (四) 比较状语从句: 可分为同级比较和不同级比较, 同级比较通常由 as 引导, 不同级比较通常由 than 引导。 注意几种特殊引导形式: the more/less…the more/less 越……,越…… just as…, so… 正如……,也…… A is to B what/as C is to D A 之于 B 就如 C 之于 D 一样 As A is to B, (so) C is to D 正如 A 之于 B,C 也之于 D no(not any) more… than ……与……都不 no (not any) less… than ……与……一样都 not so much…as… 与其说……不如说 ★特别提醒 1 几种不常用比较状语从句 You were on time and so was I. (注意用倒装结构)
.

.

Food is to men what/as oil is to machine. As food is important to men, so oil is to machine. He is no more a teacher than we are. He is no less a teacher than we are. It is not so much the actual population of the world as its rate of increase that catches my attention. The secret of success is not so much money as a strong will. 2 注意比较状语从句中的省略结构, 尤其需要注意根据省略的主语来选择谓语动 词的单复数及动词时态。 He has paid more money than has been estimated before. (五)原因状语从句 主要引导词有: as because since now that considering (that) 鉴于,顾及到 seeing that 鉴于 in as/so much as not because…but because in that…因为,在于 ★特别提醒 1 几种不常用的时间状语从句 Considering that the shoes are hand-made, the price is reasonable. Seeing that he was really upset, we decided to leave him alone. A thorough physical examination is important in as/so much as it serves to reassure the patient. Critism and self-criticism is necessary in that it helps people to find and correct their mistakes. 2 because,since,as 和 for 的区别: Because 表示原因语气最强,通常用来回答 why 引导的特殊疑问句。 Since 语气不如 because,而 as 语气不如 since。它们表达的往往是显而易见的原 因或已经为人们所知的原因,强调的往往是主句而不是原因状语从句。 For 通常作并列连词,是一种解释说明,不表示原因。 (六)方式状语从句:表示以……的方式 as 像,正如 (just) as…so… 正如……,也…… as if 好像,仿佛 as though 好像,仿佛 the way 以……的方式 ★特别提醒 1 几种不常用的方式状语从句 Just as water is to fish, so air is to man Treat others the way you want others treat you. (七)结果状语从句 So…that… 如此……以至于…… Such…that…如此……以至于…… With the result that… 结果是…… So much so that…如此……以至于…… To the degree that… 到了……程度,以 To the extent that…到了……程度,以至 至于 于 ★特别提醒
.

.

1 几种不常用的结果状语从句 Alan likes hamburgers so much so that he eats them almost every day. The bad news upset me to the degree that I could not fall into sleep last night. 2 so…that 结构中的 so 置于句首时,句子要用倒装语序。 So absorbed was he in the novel that he did not realize it was eight o’clock already. 3 注意结果状语从句与目的状语从句的区别。 目的状语从句的引导词, 主要有 that (以便), so that (以便); in order that (以便) ; for the purpose that (以便) ;lest (以免) ;for fear that (以免) ;in case (以 防) ;in the hope that (以望) 。其中 lest 引导的目的状语从句中使用虚拟语气。 A strict supervision during the period is kept lest the patient (should) develop any physical and emotional effects. (八)地点状语从句 表示地点,主要由 where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere 来引导。 Where there is a will, there is a way. Wherever he goes, he will bear what his mother says in his mind. Everywhere he showed us around, we saw gren lawns and beautiful flower beds. (九)对比状语从句 表示对比,主要由 while 或 whereas 来引导。 The soles are leather, while the uppers are canvas. (鞋跟是皮的,而鞋面是帆布的) 二 关系从句(定语从句) 定语从句真题剖析 1 I was very interested in ____ she told me. (2009) A. all that B. all which C. all what D. that 2 The party, ___ I was the guest of honor, was extremely enjoyable. (2006) A. by which B. for which C. to which D. at which 定语从句重点小结: 1 定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 名称 意义 结构特点 功能 引导词 限制性定语 对先行词起 紧 跟 先 行 修饰先行词 所有关系代 从句 限定作用; 词,同先行 词或关系副 指特定的人 词之间没有 词 或物;不可 逗号隔开 省略,否则 影响句子的 完整性 非限制性定 对先行词作 跟在先行词 修饰先行词 Which, 语从句 补充性的说 后,用逗号 或整个句子 who, whom, 明;如果省 与主句隔开 as, 介 词 略,不影响 +which ( 不 句子的完整 能用 that) 性
.

.

2 关系代词和关系副词的用法 关系代词是用来指代先行词是人或物的名词或代词: 作用/功能 用于限制性或非限制性定语从句 代替人 who whom whose (= of whom)

代替物 主语 which 宾语 which 定语 whose (of whom) 关系副词在定语从句中表示时间、地点或原因: 关系副词 被替代的先行词 在从句中的作用 When (= at, in, on, during 表示时间的名词 时间状语 which) Where (= in, at which) 表示地点的名词 地点状语 Why (= for which ) 只有 reason 原因状语 3 不用 that 只用 which 的情况 (a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时。 (错 )The tree, that is four hundred years old, Is very famous here. (b) 介词后不能用。 We depend on the land from which we get our food. We depend on the land that/which we get our food from. 限制性定语从句只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况 (1)当先行词是 anything, everything, nothing (something 除外 ), few, all, none, little, some 等代词时,或者是由 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much , each 等修饰时 Have you taken down everything (that) Mr. Li has said? There seems to be nothing (that) seems impossible for him in the world. All that can be done has been done. There is little (that) I can do for you. 注意 1 :部分时候 that 可以省略,如部分例句将 that 用括号括住。 注意 2 :当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用 who Any man that/.who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing. (2) 当先行词被序数词修饰 The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. (3) 当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时 This is the best film that I have seen. (4) 当形容词被 the very, the only, the same, the last 修饰时 This is the very good dictionary that I want to buy, After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owned. (5) 当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时 Who is the man that is standing there? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? (6) 当先行词既有人,也有动物或者物体时 Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned?
.

只用于限制性定语从 句 代替人或物 that that

.

(7) 当关系代词在定语从句中做表语 The village is no longer the one that it used to be 10 years ago. (8) 当在 there be 句型中,通常情况下用 that ,不用 which 4 关系代词和关系副词的省略 ( 1) 关系代词 which, that, who, whom 在定语从句中作直接宾语时可以省略。 This is the novel (that/which) I read last night. He is the collegue (who/shom) I met in the supermarket. ( 2 )关系代词 that 在定语从句中作表语时可省略。 He is not the man (that) he used to be. ( 3 )当先行词是 reason 且关系词在句中作状语时,关系词 why 可以省略。 This is the reason (why) I like her so much. ( 4 )当先行词是 way 且关系代词在句中作方式状语时,关系代词 in which 或 that 可以省略。 That was the way he found out the solution to this problem. 三 名词性从句 真题解析 1. After ____ seemed an endless wait, it was his turn to enter the personnel manager ’s office. A. that B. it C. what D. there 名词性从句重点小结 1 名词性从句的引导词: 分类 引导词 功能 连接词 that, whether, if 只起连接作用,不作句子成分 关系代词 who, whom, whose, 既起连接 作用, 又担 任主语、 宾 what, which, whatever, 语、定语、表语等成分 whichever, whoever 关系副词 when, where, how, who 既起连接作用,又作状语 ★特别提醒 ( 1) 关系代词 what 有时保留其原有的疑问意义, 作疑问代词表示 “什么” ; 有时作双重关系代词,相当于“ the thing that/which ”。 I can recognize his face but I can not remember what his name is. His remarks reminded me of what I saw last night. ( 2 ) whether 与 if 在引导名词性从句时的区别 ? 主语从句只能用 whether 引导 ? Whether or not 可以连在一起使用,而 if or not 不可以连在一起,需分开 使用,且 or not 要放在句末。 ? Whether 可以引导介词宾语从句, if 不能。 ? 在 question , ask 后面一般只用 whether 来引导。 ? 后接不定式时只能用 whether 。 ? 当宾语从句提至谓语前面时只能用 whether 引导。 (一) 主语从句
.

.

1. 作句子主语的从句叫主语从句。 主语从句通常由从属连词 that , whether , if 和连接代词 what , who , which , whatever , whoever 以及连接副词 how , when , where , why 等词引导。 that 在句中无词义,只起连接作用;连接代 词和连接副词在句中既保留自己的疑问含义、又起连接作用,在从句中充 当从句的成分。 That he will come is certain. Whether it will please them is not easy to say. What he wants to tell us is not clear. Who will win the match is still unknown. Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced. Which team will win the match is still unknown. Whoever comes to the party will received a present. 注意:上述例句中的主语从句全都是放在句首,但有时为避免句子头重 脚轻,常用形式主语 it 代替主语从句作形式主语放于句首,而把主语从句 置于句末。主语从句后的谓语动词一般用单数形式。 It is a pity that she has made such a mistake. It depends on the climate whether they are going shopping today. 常用句型如下: ( 1 ) It + be + 名词 + that 从句 It is common knowledge that … ……是常识 It is a surprise that … 令人惊奇的是…… It is a fact that … 事实是…… ( 2 ) It + be + 形容词 + that 从句 It is necessary that … 有必要…… It is important that … 重要的是…… It is obvious that … 很明显…… ( 3 ) It + be + 动词的过去分词 + that 从句 It is believed that … 人们相信…… It is known to all that … 众所周知…… It has been decided that … 已决定…… ( 4 ) It + 不及物动词 + that 从句 It appears/seems that … 似乎…… It happened that … 碰巧…… It occurred to me that … 我突然想起…… 2. 引导词 what 与 that What 引导主语从句时在从句中充当句子成分, 如主语.宾语.表语, 而 that 则不然。而 that 只起连接作用,本身无实际意义,在从句中也不充当任何 成分。 That 引导的主语从句放在句首时不能省略。 What you said yesterday is right. That a new teacher will come to teach us is true. 3. 语气 另注意在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时, 谓语动词要用虚拟语气 “(should) +do” ,常用的句型有: It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that …
.

.

It is a pity (a shame, no wonder, etc.) that… It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that… (二)宾语从句 ( 1 )宾语从句在句中作宾语。在带复合宾语的句子中, it 也常被用作形式 宾语放在真正宾语 that 从句的前面。 We consider it absolutely necessary that we should open our door to the outside world. ( 2 )如果主句的谓语动词表示的是“认为、相信、猜测”概念时,如 think , believe ,consider ,suppose ,expect ,fancy,guess ,reckon ,imagine 等,其 后的宾语从句若含有否定含义,一般要把否定词前移到主句的谓语上,宾 语从句中的谓语用肯定形式。 I don ’t think I can do it myself. ( 3)在表示命令、请求、建议、希望等意义的动词后面的宾语从句中要使 用虚拟语气,通常使用 should+ 动词原形, should 通常可以省略,常见的此 类动词有: 表示命令 order, command, demand, instruct, ask 表示请求 ask, request, require 表示建议 suggest, advise, propose, recommend 表示希望 desire, insist ( 4 )宾语从句也可用作介词的宾语,且介词宾语不能用 which 引导,要用 what 。 She was deeply moved by what he said . (三 )表语从句 在句中作表语的从句叫表语从句。引导表语从句的关联词与引导主语从句 的关联词大致一样,表语从句位于连系动词后,有时用 as if 引导。其基本 结构为:主语 + 系动词 + that 从句。 需要注意的,当主语是 reason 时,表语从句要用 that 引导而不是 because 。 例如: The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning. 【注意】whether 可引导表语从句,但与之同义的 if 却通常不用于引导表语 从句。 (四)同位语从句 同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容。同位语从句通常由 that 引导, 可用于同位语从句的名词有 advice 、 demand 、 doubt 、 fact 、 hope 、 idea、 information 、message 、news 、order 、problem 、promise 、question 、request 、 suggestion 、 truth 、 wish 、 word 等。例如: The news that we won the game is exciting. I have no idea when he will come back home. The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 专项考点练习: 1. ________that they found an unusual plant in the forest. A. It is said B. They are said C. It said D. It says 2. _____ caused the accident is still a complete mystery.
.

.

A. What B. That C. How D. Where 3. _____ helped to save the drowning girl is worth praising. A. Who B. Anyone C. Whoever D. The person 4. Eat _____ you like and leave the others for _____ comes in late. A. any; who B. every; whoever C. whichever; whoever D. either; whoever 5. ____ she couldn ’ t understand was _____ fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons. A. What; why B. That; why C. What; because D. Why; that 6. It was ____ he said ___ disappointed me. A. What; that B. That; that C. What; what D. That;what

语法核心考点二:句子成分分析 真题剖析 1 Which of the following prepositional phrases is an adverbial of concession? (2012) A. They used the box for keeping treasures. B. I stepped aside for her to get in first. C. For all that he seems to dislike me, I still like him. D. The parents bought a birthday cake for their son. 2. Which of the following prepositional phrases can function as an adverbial?(2012) A. Are you sure of Simon’s disappearance. B. The man with a beard is talking to the manager. C. Every precaution was taken against the failure of the plan. D. Despite the rain, everyone enjoyed the trip. 3. All the following sentences have an appositive EXCEPT (2012) A. She bought herself a pair of new shoes. B. Only one problem still remains—— the food. C. My friends all understand and support me. D. She liked her current job, teaching English. 4. Which of the italicized parts functions as an object? (2012) A. He doesn’t like the idea of my speaking at the meeting. B. It is no use your pretending not to know the matter. C. My parents strongly object to my going out alone at night. D. Her falling into the river was the climax of the whole trip. 5. Which of the italicized parts functions as a subject? (2012) A. We never doubt that her brother is honest. B. The problem is not who will go but who will stay. C. You must give it back to whoever it belongs to. D. It is clear that the crime was done deliberately. 6. Which of the following reflexive pronouns is used as an appositive? (2012) A. He promised himself rapid progress. B. The manager herself will interview Mary. C. I have nothing to say for myself. D. They quarreled themselves red in the face.
.

.

7. In the sentence “The manager interviewed Jim himself in the morning”, the italicized word is used to modify (2011) A. the object B. the verb C. the subject D. the prepositional phrase 8. Which of the italicized parts is used as an object? (2011) A. What do you think has happened to her? B. Who do you think the visiting professor is? C. How much do you think he earns every month. D. How quickly would you say he would come? 9. Xinchun returned from abroad a different man. The italicized part function as a(n) ____ in the sentence. A. appositive B. object C. adverbial D. complement 10. Which “of” in the following sentences indicates a subject-predicate relationship? A. the occupation of the island B. the law of Newton C. the arrival of the tourists D. the plays of Oscar Wilde 11. Which of the following italicized parts serves as an appositive? A. He is not the man to draw back. B. Larry has a large family to support. C. Tony hit back the urge to tell a lie. D. There is really nothing to fear. 重点总结: 句子的主要成分是:主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语、表语、补语、同位语。 主语(subject):一般由名词性的成分充当,如名词、代词、名词性从句、动名 词和不定式;要注意形式主语 it 与真正主语的辨析。 1 In the following sentence “It’s no use waiting for me”, the italicized phrase is _____. (2010) A. the object B. an adverbial C. a complement D. the subject 答案:D 谓语(predicator) :由动词来充当,主要考察时态、语态。 宾语(Object) :位于及物动词或介词之后,也是由名词性成分的词、短语或从 句充当;动名词和不定式也可充当宾语;注意形式宾语 it 和真正宾语的辨析。 2 In “How much do you think he earns?” how much is _____ of the sentence. (2009) A. the subject B. the adverbial C. the object D. the complement 特别提醒: 双宾语和复合宾语的区别: 双宾语是有的动词后面跟直接宾语和间接宾语。 直接宾语指的是动词所涉及的物; 间接宾语是受益于动词动作的人。 复合宾语:在英语中,有些动词接了一个宾语后句子意思仍不完整,还需要 再加上一个词或短语放在宾语之后来补充说明其身份、特征、状态或所做的 动作,这种 “宾语 +宾语补足语 ”结构称为复合宾语( object complement ) . 注意: 宾语和宾补之间存在逻辑主谓关系, 间接宾语和直接宾语之间不存在。 3. Which of the following sentence has an object complement? (2010) A. The director appointed John manager.
.

.

B. I gave Mary a Christmas present. C. You have done Peter a favor. D. She is teaching Children English. 答案: A 定语( attribute) :一般修饰名词,由形容词性质的词、短语或从句充当。 状语( adverbial):一般修饰动词或整个句子,一般由副词性质的词、短语或 从句充当;介词短语也可以充当句子状语;状语可用于表示时间、地点、原 因、结果、方式、目的、让步、条件等。 4. Which of the following italicized phrases indicates CAUSE? (2010) A. Why don ’t you do it for the sake of your friends ? B. I wish I could write as well as you . C. For all his efforts , he didn ’t get an A. D. Her eyes were red from excessive reading . 表语( subject complement ) :用于联系动词后面,用于解释、说明、描述主 语,一般由形容词、名词性质的词、短语或从句充当。

语法核心考点三:虚拟语气 真题解析: 1. If there were no subjunctive mood, English ______ much easier to learn.(2009, 52) A. could have been B. would be C. will be D. would have been 答案:B 2. It is necessary that he ____ the assignment without delay.(2010,60) A. hand in B. hands in C. must hand in D. has to hand in 答案:A 3. It’s getting late. I’d rather you _____ now.(2011,61) A. left B. leave C. are leaving D. will leave 答案:A 4. My boss ordered that the legal documents ______ to him before lunch. (2012, 54) A. be sent B. were sent C. were to be sent D. must be sent 答案: A 5. Whichh of the following sentences contains subjunctive mood?(2013,54) A. Lucy insisted that her son get home before 5 o’clock. B. She used to drive to work, but now she takes the city metro. C. Walk straight ahead, and don’t turn till the second traffic lights. D. Paul will cancel his flight if he can not get his visa by Friday. 答案:A 6. If it ____ tomorrow, the match would be put off.(2013,63) A. was to rain B. were to rain C. was raining D. had rained 答案:B 概念:虚拟语气是一种动词形式,表示说话人的一种愿望、假设、怀疑、猜测、 建议等含义,用于强调怀疑或不可能,而不是客观存在的事实。 虚拟语气重点小结:
.

.

1 普通虚拟条件句 普通虚拟条件句叙述与事实相反的情况,不强调推测意味。 虚拟情况 条件从句 结果主句 与现在事实相反 If + 主语+ 过去时 (be 动 主 语 +would/could/might 词通常用 were) do 与过去事实相反 If + 主语+ had done 主语+would have done 与将来事实相反 (1) If + 主语+ 过去时 (be 主语+would/should do 动词通常用 were) (2) If + 主语+ should do (3) If + 主语+ were to do 注意:should do 比 were to do 实现的可能性大 2 推测虚拟条件句 用来推测未来事件, 即讲话人认为实现的可能性极小。所以与将来事实相反的虚 拟形式适用于推测虚拟条件句。 虚拟情况 条件从句 结果主句 与将来事实相反 (1) If + 主语+ 过去时 (be 主语+would do 动词通常用 were) (2) If + 主语+ should do (3) If + 主语+ were to do 注意:should do 比 were to do 实现的可能性大 3 错综时间条件句 错综时间条件句即虚拟条件从句和主句动作发生的时间不一致, 因此主句和从句 时态的选择上不能拘泥于上表所列的时态构成,需视具体情况而定。 If I were you, I wouldn’t have gone out with him last night. (现在-过去) If I had had breakfast this morning, I wouldn’t be so hungry now. (过去-现在) 4 含蓄条件句 含蓄条件句指句中没有出现明显表示虚拟语气的条件句, 而是使用一些词、 短语、 从句或其它结构来表示条件,但句中仍然使用了虚拟语气。短语通常有:but for (要不是) ,without, with, or(否则) ,otherwise(否则) ,in case of(在…..的情 况下) ,what if (如果……将会怎样)等。 But for his father ’s encouragement, he wouldn’t have won the first prize. With better equipment, we would have succeeded. 5 名词性从句中若含有表示“命令、建议、请求、意愿、主张、目的”等意义的 词时,需使用虚拟语气,通常用 should+动词原形,should 可以省略。详见名词 性从句 部分。 6. 由 wish 引导的从句需要用虚拟语气。通常用过去时表示对现在的虚拟。用过 去完成时表示对过去的虚拟,用 would+动词原形表示对将来的虚拟。 I wish I could fly like a bird. I wish I hadn’t lent him my computer. I wish I would afford to travel the whole world. 7 在 would rather,had rather,would sooner 和 would prefer 引导的从句中要使用
.

.

虚拟语气,即用过去时表示现在或将来的情况,用完成时表示过去的情况,希望 或委婉的责备。 I’d rather you told me about it right away. 8 在固定句型 it is (high) time…中,谓语动词要用过去时。 It is high time you told me about it. 9. If only…引导的从句表示没有实现的愿望或遗憾,要使用虚拟语气。用过去时 表示现在没有实现的愿望,用过去完成时表示过去没有实现的愿望。 If only I were a bird and could fly freely in the sky. If only I had known it earlier and I could have stopped it. 10 在让步状语从句中,whether…or…结构通常用倒装语序,谓语动词用 be 的原 形来表示。 Be it fine or not, I will inspect the factory myself tomorrow. = Whether it is fine or not, I will inspect the factory myself tomorrow. 11 在 for fear that,in order that,so that 引导的目的状语从句中,谓语动词通常 使用 should/might/could+ 动词原形。 He tiptoed for fear that he might disturb his father. 12 在 lest 引导的目的状语从句中,谓语动词通常用 should+动词原形。 She didn’t allow her little daughter go out lest she should catch flu. 定义:虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,而不表示客观存在的事实, 所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相反。 应用条件:在表示虚假的、与事实相反的或难以实现的情况时用虚拟语气, 表示主观愿望或某种强烈情感时,也用虚拟语气。即当一个人说话时欲强 调其所说的话是基于自己的主观想法,愿望,假想,猜测,怀疑或建议, 而不是根据客观实际,就用虚拟语气。 虚拟语气误区 1.混合条件句的主从句时态不会灵活变化; 2.省略 if 时,句子调整不正确; 3.不会去找意思中的“应该”含义; 4.陷在虚拟中出不来,把真实条件句当成虚拟条件句 语法核心考点五 非谓语动词 真题解析 1. What a nice day! How about the three of us ____ a walk in the park nearby? (2009, 51) A. to talk B. take C. taking D. to be taking 答案:C 2. _____ should not become a serious disadvantage in life and work.(2010,65) A. To be not tall B. Not being tall C. Being not tall D. Not to be tall 答案:B (一)不定式(infinitive) I.基本形式: “to+动词原形” 。有时 to 可省略。不能作谓语,没有人称和数的变 化。既具有动词的特征----可以有自己的宾语和状语,又具有名词,形容词和副 词的句法功能。 不定式可以做主语,宾语,表语,定语,状语,同位语和宾语补足语 式 态 主动语态 被动语态
.

.

一般式 to write to be written 完成式 to have written to have been written 进行式 to be writing 完成进行式 to have been writing 不定式的否定式为:not+to do II.不定式的主动语态与被动语态: a. 一般式:表示谓语动词的动作与不定式的动作几乎同时发生,或发生在谓语 动作之后。 We must learn to speak English I want to be a scientist when I grow up. b. 完成式: 表示不定式的动作早于谓语动词的动作发生。 I’m sorry to have given you so much trouble. It’s a good thing for him to have been criticized. c.进行式:表示谓语动词的动作发生的时候,不定式的动作正在进行。 He seems to be waiting for somebody. He pretended to be listening attentively. 注: 在某些结构中 (尤其做宾语时, 不定式虽然表被动, 但是用主动形式表示。 1)在的 there be 句式中,不定式的主动式可表被动的意思。 There is no matter to drink here. 2)当不定式与前面的名词构成动宾关系, 又与另一代词或名词构成主谓关 系,这时不定式的主动可以表被动。 We have many difficulties to overcome. The next thing for them to do is to sweep the floor. He has no one to take care of. 3) 当不定式做表语形容词的状语,又和句中的主语构成动宾关系,这时 不定式的主动形式表被动意味。常可这样用的形容词一般 有以下几个: easy ,difficult , afraid, hard ,heavy ,pleasant, nice, dangerous, important, interesting, bitter, light 等。 They found the report was hard to understand. 4) to let(出租),blame 用主动代替被动形式表被动意味。 The car is to let. III.句法功能: 1) 做主语:当主语是个动宾结构时,或动状结构时,这时用不定式做主语。 To learn English well is not easy. 不定式短语做主语时,为了保持句子的平衡,往往以先行词做形式主语,而 把不定式短语置于谓语动词之后。 It’s so nice to hear your voice. It cost us 5 0000 yuan to build the house. 2) 作表语: a. 当表语是动宾结构或动状结构时,用不定式做表语。 My job is to raise pigs. b. 当主语是不定式时,表语也要用不定式。 To see is to believe.
.

.

c. 主语是由动词转化或派生而来的名词,如果原动词要求接不定式,则表 语也应当用不定式。 My wish/hope/ idea/plan/purpose/intention is to visit Africa. 3) 作宾语:某些动词后,只能用不定式作宾语。如: attempt 企图 enable 能够 neglect 忽视 afford 负担得起 demand 要求 long 渴望 arrange 安排 destine 注定 mean 意欲,打算 begin 开始 expect 期望 omit 忽略,漏 appear 似乎,显得 determine 决定 manage 设法 cease 停止 hate 憎恨,厌 恶 pretend 假装 ask 问 dread 害怕 need 需要 agree 同意 desire 愿望 love 爱 swear 宣誓 volunteer 志愿 wish 希望 bear 承受 endeavor 努力 offer 提供 beg 请求 fail 不能 plan 计划 bother 扰乱;烦恼 forget 忘记 prefer 喜欢, 宁愿 care 关心,喜欢 happen 碰巧 prepare 准备 decide 决定 learn 学习 regret 抱歉,遗憾 choose 选择 hesitate 犹豫 profess 表明 claim 要求 hope 希望 promise 承诺, 允许 start 开始 undertake 承接 want 想要 consent 同意, 赞同 intend 想要 refuse 拒绝 decide 决定 learn 学习 vow 起 contrive 设法,图谋 incline 有…倾向 propose 提议 seek 找,寻觅 try 试图 有些动词既可接不定式作宾语, 也可接动名词作宾语, 如: want, begin ,start, remember, need, forget, like, learn 等,含义稍有不同。区别将在非谓语用法区 别中讲解。 特别提醒: a. 如果作宾语的不定式有自己的补语,则一般用先行词 it 做形式宾语,而将 真正的宾语不定式后置。 Do you think it better to translate in this way? They found it impossible to get there everything ready in time. b. 不定式一般不做介词宾语,只有在极少数介词如:but, except ,besieds 等 后才行。此时不定式可带 to 或不带 to。But 前无动词 do 时,其后接 带 to 的不定式:but 前有动词 do 时,其后的不定式 to 常省略。 In very cold winter weather a cold-blooded creature has no choice but to lie down and sleep. There was clearly nothing left to do but sit down on the little coach and weep. What do you like to do besides swim. 但 “疑问词+不定式” 结构可以用做介词宾语. I have no idea about what to do next. The first was the question of what to call it 4) 宾语补足语: 常带有不定式做宾语补足语的动词有: 下面的动词要求不定式做宾补:动词+宾语+动词不定式 (1)ask 要求,邀请 get 请,得到 prompt 促使 allow 允许 forbid 禁止 prefer
.

.

喜欢,宁愿 announce 宣布 force 强迫 press 迫使 bride 收买 inspire 鼓舞 request 请求 assist 协助 hate 憎恶 pronounce 断定,表示 advise 劝告 exhort 告诫,勉励 pray 请求 authorize 授权,委托 help 帮助 recommend 劝告,推荐 bear 容忍 implore 恳求 remind 提醒 beg 请求 induce 引诱 report 报告 compel 强迫 invite 吸引,邀请, summon 传唤 command 命令 intend 想要,企图 show 显示 drive 驱赶 mean 意欲,打算 train 训练 cause 引起 instruct 指示 require 要求 deserve 应受 leave 使,让 tell 告诉 direct 指导 like 喜欢 tempt 劝诱 entitle 有资格 order 命令 warn 告诫 enable 使能够 need 需要 urge 激励,力说 encourage 鼓励 oblige 不得不 want 想要 condemn 指责,谴责 lead 引起,使得 teach 教 entreat 恳求 permit 允许 wish 希望 (2). see, watch, notice, observe ; let, make, have ; listen to hear ;feel 这些动词后的 不定式宾补,要省略 “to”. 但要变为被动语态时,要加上 to She had the pupils work out the problem. 5). 定语: 放在它所修饰的名词或代词之后 .不定式与它所修饰的名词或名词词 组之间的关系为 A: 名词或名词词组是不定式的逻辑宾语; B: 名 词或名词词组为不定式的逻辑主语 . C:名词或名词词组与不定式 既无动宾关系又无主谓关系 A: He gave me something to eat. B: He needs someone to help him with his work.. C: I have no time to do it. 注: 带疑问词的不定式不直接做定语: That’s the only way how to solve the problem.(wrong) That’s the only way to solve the problem. 不定式做定语时可带逻辑主语,而且常用 for 引出. I have a letter for you to read. 不定式一般作定语时,往往含有将来,必须等附加意味,相当一个定语从句. 6) 状语: 目的状语:Yesterday I went to the station to meet my old brother. 常用的强调目的的短语 in order to; so as to 结果状语:He returned home to hear that his con has just join the army. 常用的短语:so (such… as to +v.) ; too….to ; enough to +v. 原因状语: (常表示喜怒哀乐等情绪) We were very excited to hear the news. 表语形容词状语:结构为 be +adj. +to do sth. The article is easy to read. 7)“疑问词+不定式”结构: 主语: How to get rid of these things is a big question. 宾语:I hardly knew how to write. 表语:The question is where to find the answer. 8)不定式的省略: A: 当两个或两个以上的不定式并列在一起时,第一个不定式带 to,后面的不
.

.

定式往往把 to 省去。Eg:I wished to finish my task and (to) get away. 但是如果在对照的场合,则不可以省去:It is better to laugh than to cry. B: 在感官动词 see, hear, feel, watch, notice observe, listen to , look at 和使役动 词 let, make have 的复合宾语中,不定式须省去 to 被动语态中要加上 to. C: 在 why 引起的句子中省去 to: Why not do it right now? Why quarrel with him? D: 在一些固定搭配后面,如:had better; would/had rather; but 等,不用 to E: help sb. (to) do sth.此句式中,可用 to 也可不用 to. (二)现在分词: 1) 用做谓语的一部分,和助动词一起够成进行时态 What are you doing here now? 2) 作表语:表示主语的特征和性质。 They situation is encouraging. The story is interesting. 3) 作定语: 相当于一个定语从句。 分词单独作定语, 通常放在被修饰的名词前。 若是分词短语作定语,放在被修饰的名词后。表示: a. 所修饰名词正在进行的 动作;b. 所修饰名词的特征和性质。 Don’t read in a moving car or bus. There was an old man standing beside me. This is an interesting book. 分词作定语时有下面几个特点: (1)现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词一般表示被动含意。 (2)现在分词表示正在进行,过去分词表示状态或做完(完成)的事。 He rushed into the burning house.他冲进了正在燃烧着的房子。 4)作状语:相当于一个状语从句。 a. 时间状语:Working in factory, we learnt a lot from the workers. 有时前面可加 while, when, as. He took notes while listening to report. b. 原因状语: Having worked with him for many years, I know him very well. Not having received his answer I decided to write another letter to him. c. 条件状语:(If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time.(分词前有时可 加连词 if,unless) d. 方式状语 (伴随状语) : Holding the note in his hand, he stood there dumfound.(常 用的动词有:sit, stand, go, come, enter, walk, say.) e.结果状语:He dropped the plate, breaking it into a hundred pieces. f. 宾语补足语:分词在复合宾语中可做宾补。可带这种复合宾语的动词有 see, set, want, start , watch, feel, hear, find, get, keep, notice, have, leave, catch, look at, eg.: We hear her sing in her room. We can see steam rising from the wet clothes. This news started me thinking. 分词的名词化: 和形容词的名词化情况一样,一些分词前面加上定冠词 the 可表一类人。
.

.

She worked hard to help the sick and the dying. The wounded were soon taken to hospital. (三)动名词(gerund) : 1).主语: 当主语是动宾,动状结构时,用动名词来做主语。 Discussing it is waste of time. Reading aloud is very important in learning English. 当作主语的动名词结构复杂而又长时,为了保持句子的平衡,须后置,而用先行 词作句子的主语。 It is no use crying over spilt milk. It is no good reading such books. It is a waste of time reading such bad books. It is fun playing with snow. It is worth while discussing the question again. 在 there+be+no 句式中用动名词来做主语。 There is no telling what will happen. 不定式和动名词作主语的区别: (1)动名词作主语通常表示抽象动作;而不定式作主语表示具体动作。 Smoking is prohibited(禁止)here.这里禁止抽烟。(抽象) It is not very good for you to smoke so much.你抽这么多烟对你身体很不好。(具 体) (2)动名词作主语时,通常用以表示一件已知的事或经验。 不定式短语通常用来表示一件未完成的事或目的。 Climbing mountains is interesting.爬山很有趣。(经验) Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在高峰时刻开车令人厌烦。(经验) (3)不定式做主语,一般用 it 当形式主语,把作主语的不定式短语后置。 It took me only five minutes to finish the job. 2)表语:当主语是动宾或动状结构时,用动名词来作表语。 Her job is washing, leaning and taking care of the children. What he hated most was resting at home and doing nothing. 注:(1) 句子的主语常是无生命名词或引导的名词性从句。 (2) 表语动名词与主 语是对等关系, 表示主语的内容。 回答 what 或 dong what 的问题。 3) 宾语:动名词可作动词宾语,介词宾语和形容词具有状语性质的宾语。 a. 动宾:有些动词后必须用动名词作宾语。如: acknowledge 承认,自认 cease 停止 mention 说到,讲到 admit 承认 tolerate 忍受 dislike 不喜欢,讨厌 advocate:提倡,主张 complete 完成 dread 可怕 appreciate 感激,欣赏 confess 坦白 endure 忍受 avoid 避免 contemplate 细想 enjoy 享有,喜爱 bear 忍受 defer 拖延 envy 嫉妒 can't help 不禁 delay 延迟 escape 逃跑, 逃避 can't stand 受不了 deny 否认 excuse 借口 consider 考虑 detest 嫌恶 fancy 幻想,爱好 favor 造成,偏爱 mind 介意 repent 悔悟 figure 描绘,计算 miss 错过 resent 怨恨 finish 完成,结束不得 pardon 原谅,饶 恕 resist 抵抗, 阻止 forgive 原谅 permit 允许 resume 恢复 imagine 设想 postpone
.

.

延迟,延期 risk 冒险 involve 卷入, 包含 practise 实行, 实践 suggest 建议 hate 讨厌 prevent 阻止 save 营救, 储蓄 keep 保持 quit 放弃停止 stand 坚持, 忍受 loathe 非常讨厌, 厌恶 recall 回想 e.g.: He suggested spending the evening with the workers. I enjoy working with you. b. 介词宾语:I have been looking forward to coming Beijing for a long time. He is afraid of falling behind the others. c. 作形容词 worth, busy, like 的具有状语性质的宾语。 be worth doing sth.: This book is worth reading. be busy doing sth.: He is busy preparing his lesson. feel like doing sth.: I don’t feel like going there again. 注:如果作宾语的动名词有自己的补语,习惯上要将动名词后置,而用先行词 it 作它的宾语。 E.g.: I found it pleasant walking along the river. 4)定语:放在所修饰的名词前,与所修饰的名词没有主谓关系,而是表示所 修饰名词的用途。 a sleeping car a fishing pole 5) 同位语:That was her desire, going on to college after finishing senior middle school. ★动名词的复合结构 动名词的复合结构的形式为:物主代词(或名词所有格)+动名词。其中物主代 词或名词所有格为动名词的逻辑主语。动名词的复合结构在句中做主语,宾语和 表语。 E.g.: Mary’s coming late made her teacher very angry. Do you mind my opening the window. 在口语中, 如果这种结构作宾语时, 其中的物主代词常用人称代词的宾格来代替, 用名词的普通格来代替名词所有格。如:Do you mind (me) opening the window? 注:不过动名词的逻辑主语在遇有下列情况时,必须用名词的普通格(或人称 代词的宾格) 。 (1) 无生命词: The boys were alarmed by the door suddenly shutting. Fire burns better by oxygen being at work. (2) 有生命名词但表示 泛指意义。 Have you ever heard of women playing football? (3) 两个以上的有生命名词并列: Do you remember my brother and me coming to see you the other day? (四)过去分词(past participle) I.形式: v.+ed (或特殊形式) 表示动作已完成 (不及物动词) , 被动意味和状态。 the exploited class 被剥削阶级 boiled water 开水 II.句法功能: 1.用做谓语的一部分,和助动词一起构成完成时态及被动语态。 We have been friends for many years. 2 表语:表示主语所处的状态 The door remained locked. 3.定语:单个过去分词作定语,通常放在所修饰的名词前,若是短语作定语放在
.

.

所修饰的名词之后。 We enjoyed the play put on by the first years students.(=We enjoyed the play which was put on by the first year students. the fallen leaves the excited people 4.状语:时间状语 When heated, ice will be changed into water.(=When it is heated,…) 条件状语 Given better instructions, the plants could have grown better.(=If they had been given…,) 原因状语 Given an apple, the child stopped crying. 5. 宾补:She had his bike repaired yesterday. 在英语中,有些动词即可接不定式作宾语,也可接-ing form(动名词)作宾语。 有些意义区别不大,有些区别较大。如: 1.remember: remember +to do 记住要作某事 remember + doing 记得过去曾经作过某事 Please remember to post the letter for me. I remember posting the letter. 2. forget +to do 忘记要作的事 forget + doing 忘记了过去作过的事 He forgot to write to me. He forgot ever having written to me. 3. regret + to do 对现在要发生的事或要做而又不能做的事感到遗憾 regret + doing 对已发生的事表示后悔 I regret to say (that) I cannot go with you. She regretted missing (or having missed =to have missed )the report. 4. mean +to do 打算…; 想要……;有…的意图 mean + doing 意味着…; 意思是…; 就是… I didn’t mean to hurt your feelings. Revolution means liberating the productive forces. 5. stop + to do 停下正在做的事而去做由不定式表示的另一件事 stop + doing 停止正在做的事 They stopped to talk. They stopped talking. 6. try + to do 设法…; 想法….; try + doing 试一试…; 试试看 He tried hard to pretend to share in the pleasure of his officials. If the tears don’t remove the speak, try washing the eyes with boiled, cooled water. 7. want + to do 想要… want + sb. or sth. + to do 想要某人做…; 希望某人… want + doing 需要…; 该…(动名词的主动式含有被动意味)
.

.

Somebody wants to see you. I want you to show me with your hearts that here we are all part of one big family. The matter wants thinking over. 8. need + to do 需要… need + doing 需要…;该… You don’t need to leave so early. His shoes need mending. 9. require + sb. or sth. + to do 要求(需要) 某人(某事) 做 require + doing 需要…; 该… One of his orders required all the people to bow before him. These young trees will require looking after. 10. learn + to do 学会做某事 learn + doing 学习(过) She has learned typing. She has learned the type. 注意:分词作表语 分词做表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词做表语,一种是过去分词做表语,这 两者区别是考试中经常考到的地方。一般来说,表示心理状态的动词如 excite, interest 等都是及物动词,汉语意思不是“激动” , “高兴” ,而是“使激动” 、 “使 高兴” ,因而现在分词应该是“令人激动的” 、 “令人高兴的” ,过去分词则是“感 到激动的”和“感到高兴的” 。所以,凡表示“令人……的”都是-ing 形式,凡 是表示 “感到……” 都用-ed 形式。 换句话说, 若人对……感兴趣, 就是 somebody is interested in...,若人/物本身有兴趣时,就是说 sb./sth. is interesting.这类词常见 的有: interesting 使人感到高兴--interested 感到高兴的 exciting 令人激动的--excited 感到激动的 delighting 令人高兴的--delighted 感到高兴的 disappointing 令人失望的--disappointed 感到失望的 encouraging 令人鼓舞的--encouraged 感到鼓舞的 pleasing 令人愉快的--pleased 感到愉快的 puzzling 令人费解的--puzzled 感到费解的 satisfying 令人满意的---satisfied 感到满意的 surprising 令人惊异的--surprised 感到惊异的 worrying 令人担心的--worried 感到担心的 Travelling is interesting but tiring.旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲劳。 The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.如果要学生学得太 多,他们会感到糊涂的。 The argument is very convincing.他的论点很令人信服。 They were very excited at the news.听到这个消息,他们非常激动。 补充:主动形式表示被动意义 ( 1 ) 用 某 些 不 及 物 动 词 表 示 被 动 意 义 , 如 carry,cut,drive,iron,keep,lock,open,pick,read,sell,shut,tear,wash,wear,write 等等。这 类动词既能作及物动词, 也能作不及物动词。 作不及物动词时, 形式上虽为主动, 却表示被动意义。例如:
.

.

Meat cuts easily.肉容易切。 His novel sells well.他的小说畅销。 The car drove easily.这车很容易开。 Your pen writes quite smoothly.你的笔写起来很滑。 (2)在 need(want, require, deserve, etc.)doing 句型中,动名词(doing)相当于动词 不定式的被动式(to be done),在意思上没有多大差别。例如: The garden needs watering. The garden needs to be watered. 用法相似的结构还有 bear doing, stand doing, be worth doing,习惯不用动词不定式。 (3) 用法相似的结构还有 bear doing, stand doing, be worth doing,习惯不用动词不 定式。 That book is difficult to understand.那本书难懂。 在这种句型结构中,动词不定式和主语的关系实际上是一种逻辑上的动宾关系, 可以说是动词不定式作主语变换来的,相当于 It's difficult to understand that book. 语法核心考点六:情态动词 真题剖析: 1. She ____ or so when I first met her at a conference. ( 2009 , 53 ) A. had been B. must be C. has been D. must have been 2. Are you tired? I ____ you had done enough for today. ( 2009 , 61 ) A. should have thought B. must have thought C. might have thought D. could have thought 3. Nancy’ s gone to work but her car ’s still there. She ____ by bus. ( 2010 , 52 ) A. must have gone there B. should have gone there C. ought to have gone there D. could have gone 4. Which of the following sentences express WILLINGNESS? A. By now she will be eating dinner. B. I shall never do that again. C. My brother will help you with the luggage. D. You shall get a promotion. 5. Which of the following sentences express a fact? A. Mary and her son must be home by now. B. Careless reading must give poor results. C. He must be working late at the office. D. It ’s getting late and I must leave now. 概念:情态动词本身有一定的词义,表示说话人的情绪、态度或语气的动 词,不能单独作谓语,只能和其他动词原形构成谓语。 特点:情态动词无人称和数的变化;情态动词后面跟的动词需用原形;否 定式直接在情态动词后加“ not ”。 考 点 : may/might/must+ 不 定 式 完 成 时 ; can ’ t/couldn ’ t+ 不 定 式 完 成 时 ; needn ’t+ 完成时结构;情态动词表可能性时语气又弱到强依次为 might, may, could, can, should, ought to, would, must 真题: 情态动词重点小结: 情态动词的完成时主要表示:( 1 )推测已经发生的情况;( 2 )表示虚拟
.

.

语气。 ( 1 )推测已经发生的情况 表示对已经发生的情况作肯定推测时: must have done 表示对已经发生的情况作否定推测时: can ’t/couldn ’t have done 表示对已经发生的情况语气不太肯定的推测时: may/might have done ( 2 )表示虚拟语气 表示做了不必要做的事时: needn ’t have done 表示应该做但实际上没做: should have done 表示本不该做但实际上做了: shouldn ’ t have done 表示按理该做但实际未做: ought to have done 表示本来可以做或能够做但实际上没有做: could have done 2. ought to, should, must 与 have to 的区别 Ought to 强调因义务或责任而“应该干” Should 语气没有 ought to 强,表示说话人主观认为应该干 Must 强调说话人的主观愿望 Have to 因客观原因所迫 3. 情态动词 shall 的特殊用法 shall 在法律、条约、协定、条例等中表示义务与规定。 4. 情态动词 will 的特殊用法 will 可以表示习惯或走向、推测、命令或强迫、意愿,还有“难免”之意。 Nobody is allowed to be absent and all will be here before 7 o ’ clock. (命令) She won ’t talk to me any more. (意愿) Accident will happen. (难免) 专四核心考点七 限定词

真题剖析: 1. Which of the following sentences is INCORRECT? ( 2010 , 62 ) A. All his lectures are very interesting. B. Half their savings are gone. C. Many his friends came to the party. D. Both his sisters are nurses. 2. The additional work will take ______ weeks. ( 2011 , 59 ) A. the other B. another two C. other two D. the more 3. Which of the following determiners can be put before singular count nouns and plural count nouns? ( 2012 , 59) A. many a B. few C. such D. the next 4. The following determiners can be used with both plural and uncountable nouns EXCEPT A. many B. enough C. more D. such 限定词重点小结: 1. 限定词是在名词词组中对名词中心词起特指、类脂、以及表示确定数量 和非确定数量等限定作用的词类。 英语的限定词包括:冠词、物主代词、名词所有格、指示代词、关系代词、 疑问代词、不定代词、数词和量词。
.

.

2. 限定词的选择 ( 1)单个限定词的选择: 单个限定词的选择决定于后面的名词是单数名词、复数名词还是不可数名 词。 特别提醒: either, neither, many a 只能与单数名词搭配。 a little of, a bit of, a great amount of, a great deal of, (a) little, much 等只能与 不可数名词搭配。 a lot of, lots of, enough, more, most, such, other 等既可以与复数名词又可以 与不可数名词搭配。 ★( 2)多个限定词的搭配 限定词可分为:前位、中位、后位限定词。 限定词的相互搭配关系为 : 前位 +中位 +后位 前位限定词: all, both, half; double, twice, three times; one-third, two-fifths; what, such a/an 等 中位限定词: a/an, the, zero; this, that, these, those; my, your, etc; Merry ’ s, my friend ’ s; some, any, no, every, each, neither, enough; what(ever), which(ever), whose 等。 后位限定词: one, two, three; first, second, third; next, last, other, another; many, much, (a) few, (a) little, fewer, (the) fewest, less, (the) least, more, most; several, plenty of, a lot of, lots of, a great number of, a great deal of, a large amount of ; such 等。 特别提醒: ①前位限定词、中位限定词相互排斥,不可以出现在同一个名词短语中; 而后位限定词之间不存在相互排斥性。 all both students (T/ F) the my coat (T/ F) another two pens ( T /F) my several hundred students ( T /F) ② such 在 such a/an+ 单 数 名 词 中 为 前 位 限 定 词 ; 而 在 all/many/few/other/another/some/any/no/one/two such 结构中则为后位限定词。

语法核心考点八 代词 真题剖析: 1. Our association, which has consistently pressed for greater employment opportunities for the disabled, will publish ____ proposals in the near future. ( 2008 , 51 ) A. their B. our C. his D. its 2. When one has good health, ____ should feel fortunate. ( 2010 , 59 ) A. you B. they C. he D. we 3. Which of the following reflexive pronouns is used as an appositive? ( 2012 , 53) A. He promised himself rapid progress.
.

.

B. The manager herself will interview Mary. C. I have nothing to say for myself . D. They quarreled themselves red in the face. 4. Facing the board of directors, he didn ’t deny____ breaking the agreement. ( 2013 , 51 ) A. him B. his C. it D. its 代词重点小结: 代词是代替名词及起名词作用的短语或句子的词。代词根据其意思和用法 可分为:人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、相互代词、反身代词、疑问代 词、连接代词、关系代词、不定代词。 1.人称代词有主格和宾格之分:主语用主格,宾语用宾格。单独使用的人 称代词通常用宾格,即使它代表主语也是如此。 I like China. Me too. 2.物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词。前者在句子中只用作 定语;后者则不能用作定语,但可以用作主语、宾语、表语、连用 of 做定 语等。 如: Here is my coat. Its color is red. Is that coat yours or hers. 可以说 a friend of mine, 但是不能说 a friend of me 3. 指示代词主要有四个, ( this, that, these, those )。它们在句中可作主语、 宾语、表语、定语等。 特别提醒 ( 1 )为避免重复,可以用 that 和 those 代替前面提到的名词。 Our grain output is now 5 times that of 1980. ( 2 )用来回指上文提到的事情时,可用 this 或 that ,但若指下文叙述的事 情通常只用 this 。 The followings are all correct responses to “ Who told the news to the teacher? ” EXCEPT_____ ( 2008 ) A. Jim did this B. Jim did so C. Jim did that D. Jim did this 多用于下文所指。 ( 3 )打电话时,通常用 this 指自己,用 that 指对方。 Hello. This is Jim. Is that John? ( 4 )除了用作代词, this 和 that 还可用作副词,用来修饰形容词或副词, 相当于 so 。 My daughter has walked eight miles today. We never thought she could walked ____ far. ( 2006 ) A. / B. such C. that D. as 4.疑问代词 who, whom, whose, which, what 等在句中可用作主语、宾语、 表语、定语等。 注意: ( 1) who 和 whom 只用作主语、 宾语和表语, 不用作定语; whose, which, what 既可以用作主语、宾语、表语也可以用作定语。 ( 2 ) what 和 which 的用法区别:当选择的范围较明确时用 which ,当选择 的范围不明确时用 what 。
.

.

Which color do you like, red or green? What color is you car? 5. other, the other, another, others 的用法 指单数时,泛指用 another,特指用 the other;指复数时,泛指用 other+复数名词 或 others(其后不接名词) ,特指用 the others。 专四核心考点九 动词时态 / 语态 真题剖析: 1. All the following sentences definitely indicate future time EXCEPT ( 2013 , 58) A. Mother is to have tea with Aunt Betty at four. B. The school pupils will be home by now. C. The presient is coming to the UN next week. D. He is going to e-mail me the necessary information. 动词时态 / 语态重点小结 (一)现在完成进行时 1)表示从过去开始的某个动作持续到现在,这个动作可能刚停止,也可能 还在进行。 ① For some time now, world leaders____ out the necessity for agreement on arms reduction. (2002, 43) A. had been pointing B. have been pointing C. were pointing D. Pointed ★常用的引导词有 how long, long, since, for, all the time 等。 How long have you been wearing glasses? Have you been waiting long? They have been quarrelling ever since they got married. It has been raining for two hours now. She has been teaching English all the time. 现在完成时与现在完成进行时 ( 1 )现在完成时表示动作业已完成,而完成进行时却不一定如此。 They’ ve built a bridge. (已建成) They’ ve been building a bridge. (可能还在建) ( 2 )许多静态动词只能用于完成时而不能用于完成进行时。 know, last, see, have, own, think ( 3 )强调时间长时用完成进行时比较好。 (二)过去完成时 1)表示过去某时间之前业已发生(过去的过去)。 The student said there were a few points in the essay he__ impossible to comprehend. (2007, 59) A. had found B. finds C. has found D. would fine 2)过去时间有时由一时间状语表示出来,但在更多情况下由上下文表示出 来: (三)表示将来的一般时态和进行时态 将来时除了可用 “ will/shall+ 动词原形” 来表达外, 还可用其它方式来表达。 ★ be going to do
.

.

be going to do :表示决定、打算和意图,还指有迹象表明即将发生或肯定会 发生,而 will do 表示说话人主观认为、相信、希望或假定要发生的事情。 ★进行时表示将来时 表示按照计划或安排将要进行的动作。 常用的动词有: go, come, leave, arrive, land, meet, move, return, start, stay, stop, give, have 等位移性动词。 When are you leaving? She is coming to school tomorrow. ★ be to do: 表示安排、计划、决定或注定要发生的事 ★ be about to do: 表示即将做某事。 ★一般现在时表示将来时 ①在时间及条件状语从句中代替一般将来时 ②在 make sure , make certain , see to it 引起的从句中用现在时表示将来时 练习: James has just arrived, but I didn ’t know he ____ until yesterday. A. will come B. was coming C. had been coming D. came 专四核心考点十 主谓一致考点分析 真题剖析: 1. Which of the following sentences is INCORRECT? ( 2012 , 51 ) A. Twenty miles seems like a long walk to him. B. No one except his supportors agree with him. C. Neither Julia nor I were going to the party. D. Few students in my class are really lazy. 2. Which of the following sentences is grammatically INCORRECT? ( 2013 , 59 ) A. Politics are the art or science of government. B. Ten miles seems like a long walk to me. C. Mumps is a kind of infectious desease. D. All the furnitune has arrived undamaged. 3. The statistics _____ that living standards in the area have improved drastically in recent times. A. proves B. is proving C. are proving D. prove 概念:语法形式上要一致 , 即用作主语的名词中心词和谓语动词在单、复数 形式上一致 2) 意义上要一致 , 即主语和谓语的一致关系取决于主语的单、 复数意义 . 1. 并列结构作主语时当意义为复数时谓语用复数 注意 : 当主语由 and 连结时 ,如果它表示一个单一的概念 ,即指同一人或 同一物时 , 谓语动词用单数 ,and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词 . The iron and steel industry is very important to our life. 典型例题 The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting. A.is B. was C. are D. were 2. 主谓一致中的靠近原则

.

.

( 1) 当 there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时 , 谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一 致. ( 2 )总的来说,在由 not only…but also…, not just…but…, or, either…or…, neither…nor… 连接主语的句子中及在 there be 句型中, 谓语动词的单复数按 就近原则处理,即按与谓语动词最靠近的那个主语来确定谓语动词的单复 数形式。如: Not only John but also I am going to Shanghai next week. 3.谓语动词与前面的主语一致 当主语后面跟有 with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as 等词引起的短语时 ,谓语动词与前面的主语一致 . The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory. He as well as I wants to go boating. 4. 代词 each 和由 every, some, no, any 等构成的复合代词作主语 , 或主语中含 有 each, every, 谓语需用单数 . Each of us has a tape-recorder. There is something wrong with my watch. 当主语是一本书或一条格言时 , 谓语动词常用单数 . 表示金钱 , 时间 . 距离 . 价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时 , 通常把这些名词看 作一个整体 ,谓语一般用单数 .( 用复数也可 , 意思不变 .) 5. 在代词 what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all 等词的单复数由 其指代的词的单复数决定 . All is right. All are present. 集体名词作主语时 , 谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定 . 如 family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee 等词后用复数形式时 , 意为这个集体 中的各个成员 , 用单数时表示该个集体 . 但集合名词 people, police, cattle, poultry( 家禽 ).militia( 民兵 ).vermin 等在任 何情况下都用复数形式 难点:主谓一致中的 " 表里不一 " 现象 1, "more than one + 名词 " 作主语时 , 谓语动词常用单数 . 例如 : More than one teacher gets the flowers. 2, "many a + 名词 " 作主语时 , 从意义上看是复数 ,但谓语动词常用单数 . 例如 : Many a student has been sent to plant trees. 3, "half of, the rest of, most of, all of 及百分数或分数 +of 等后接名词 " 作主语 时 , 谓语动词形式根据 of 后的名词而定 . 例如 : Three fourths of the surface of the earth is covered with water. 4, all 指人时 , 动词用复数 ;all 指物时 , 动词用单数 . 例如 : "All are present and all is going well." 所有人全部到场了 , 一切进展顺利 5, what 引导的主语从句 , 谓语动词可视表语而定 : 表语是单数名词时 , 动词用 单数 , 相反 , 则用复数 . 例如 : What they want to get is the number of good books. 6, and 连接的两个单数名词前若用 each,every,no 修饰 , 该名词短语作主语时 , 谓语动词用单数形式 . 例如 : No book and no pen is found in the schoolbag.
.

.

7, 当主语后面有 as well as, with, along with, together with, but, like, rather than, except 等引导的短语时 , 谓语动词要与最前面的主语保持一致 . 例如 : My father as well as his workmates has been to Beijing. 8, each 作主语的同位语时 , 谓语动词由主语来决定 , 与 each 无关 . 例如 : They each have a bike. 9, 动词不定式 ,动词 -ing 形式短语作主语时 , 谓语动词常用单数 . 例如 : Going out for a walk after supper is a good habit. 10, the following 作主语时 , 谓语动词的数与后面名词的数保持一致 . 例 如: The following are good examples. 11, 以 -ics 结尾的学科名词 , 如 politics,physics,mathematics 等作主语时 ,谓语动 词用单数 . 以 -s 结尾的名词 news, works, plastics 等同属此类 . 例如 : Politics is now taught in all schools. 当以 -ics 结尾的学科名词表示 " 学科 " 以外的意义时,用作复数,如: mathematics (运算能力) politics( 政治观点 )economics (经济意义)等 12, 有些用来表示由两个对应部分组成一体的名词复数 (trousers, glasses, shoes. shorts. scissors. scales 等 )作主语时 , 前面若有 " 一条 "," 一副 "," 一把 "之 类的单位词 ,动词用单数 ; 若没有单位词或单位词是复数 , 则谓语动词用复数 . 例如 : The shoes are all right. 还有一些以 -s 结尾的名词通常用复数: arms (武 器) .clothes.contents.minites (记录) .remains (遗体) .thanks 等 13, "one and a half + 名词 " 作主语时 , 谓语动词要用单数 . 例如 : One and a half apples is left on the table. 14,"One or two more + 复数名词 " 作主语时 , 谓语动词用复数 . 例如 : One or two persons are sent there to help them do the work. 15,"one of+ 复数名词 + 定语从句 " 结构中 , 定语从句的谓语动词要用复数 ; 而 在 "the only one of + 复数名词 +定语从句 " 的结构中 , 定语从句的谓语动词要 用单数 . 例如 : He is one of the students who get there on time. 16, 表示时间 , 距离 , 金钱等的复数名词作主语表达一个整体概念时 , 谓语动词 常用单数 , 但若强调数量 , 谓语动词可用复数 . 例如 : One million dollars is a lot of money. 专四核心考点十一 英语倒装句 (Inversion) 考点分析 真题剖析: 1. Little ____ about her own safety, though she herself was in great danger. ( 2009 , 59 ) A. she cared B. she may care C. may she care D. did she care 主语和谓语是句子的核心,它们之间有两种语序: 一是主语在谓语之前称为自然语序( Natural Order ); 二是主语在谓语之后则称为倒装语序( Inverted Order )。 而倒装语序中又有完全倒装 ( Full Inversion ) 和部分倒装 ( Partial Inversion ) 完全倒装( Full Inversion ):又称 " 全部倒装 ", 是指将句子中的谓语动词全部 置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时。
.

.

部分倒装( Partial Inversion ): 指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态动词倒装 至主语之前 , 而谓语动词无变化。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词, 则需添加助动词 do, does 或 did ,并将其置于主语之前。 一、 表示强调 : 倒装句最突出、最常见的修辞效果就是强调 , 其表现形式如下 : 1.only + 状语或状语从句置于句首 ,句子用部分倒装 。 Only in this way can you solve this problem Only after he had spoken out the word did he realize he had made a big mistake. 2. hardly, in no way, little, scarcely, seldom, never, no more, no longer, not, not only, no sooner, not only … (but also), not until… 等具有否定意义的词或词 组位于句首 ,句子用部分倒装。 No sooner had I got home than it began to rain. Seldom do I go to work by bus. Not until twelve o'clock did she go to bed last night . 3. so / such...that 结构中的 so 或 such 位于句首可以构成部分倒装句 , 表示 强调 so /such 和 that 之间的部分。 So unreasonable was his price that everybody startled. To such length did she go in rehearsal that the two actors walked out. 二、 承上启下 为了避免句子部分内容不必要的重复,常用 "so+be 动词(助动词、情态动 词) + 主语 " 或 "neither/nor + be 动词(助动词、情态动词) + 主语 " 的倒装句 式。 其中第一个句式表示 " 与前面所述的肯定情况相同 " ,第二个句式表示 " 与前面所述的否定情况相同 " 。 A: His brother is ( not ) a college student; B: so is mine.(nor is mine .)

.

.

专四核心考点十二 反义疑问句 真题剖析: 1. When you have finished with the book, don’t forget to return it to Tim, _____? (2011,54) A. do you B. will you C. don’t you D. won’t you 反义疑问句 (Tag Question) 即附加疑问句。它表示提问人的看法 , 没有把握 , 需要对方证实。 反义疑问句由两部分组成:前一部分是一个陈述句,后一 部分是一个简短的疑问句,两部分的人称时态应保持一致。 疑问句的主语 和陈述句的主语保持一致,都用主格形式。 速记方法:前肯后否,前否后肯,前 be 后 be,前无 be 后加助 , 时态一致 1. 附加疑问句主语的选择: 当陈述部分的主语是 ( 1 )用 one 时,后面的疑问句可用 one/he. ( 2 )用 no one 时,后面附加疑问句中主语用 they。 ( 3 )用 everything, anything, nothing, something 等指物的合成词时,附加疑 问句中主语只能用 it , 不用 they ( 4 ) this, that, 或 those, these 时,附加疑问句中主语用 it 或 they. ( 5 )用 everyone ,everybody,someone ,no one, somebody,anyone ,nobody 等指人的合成词时,附加疑问句中主语在正式语体中常用 he ,在非正 式语体中一般用 they. ( 6 )用不定式,动名词,其他短语,附加疑问句中主语一般用 it 。 ( 7) 在 there be 句型中, 附加疑问句中主语一般用 be/ 情态动词 / 助动词 +there 。 2. 反义疑问句的特殊句型 否定意义的词 (1) 当陈述部分有 never , seldom, hardly , few , little , barely, scarcely, nothing , none,rarely , no, not, no one, nobody, neither 等否定意义的词汇时, 后面的反意疑问句则为肯定形式: There are few apples in the basket, are there? (4) 当陈述部分含有否定意思的词是 unhappy,dislike,unfriendly, 等含有否定 词缀的派生词,也就是有 un,dis,no- 前缀、 less- 后缀等含有词缀而意思否定 的词,当做肯定句处理,疑问部分要用否定形式。如: The girl dislikes history,doesn’t she? 3. 表示主语主观意愿的词 含有 think, believe, suppose, imagine, expect 等动词后接宾语从句构成的主从 复合句在构成反意疑问句时,视情况不同有两种不同 的构成方式。 (即 当主句是 I think , I believe , I suppose , I imagine , I expect 时要反问从句, 其余句式均反问主句。 ) (1)当主句的主语为第一人称时,其后的简短问句应与从句相一致。例如 I expect our English teacher will be back this weekend, won't she/he? We suppose you have finished the project, haven't you? 值得注意的是,当这些动词后接的宾语从句的否定转移到主句时,其仍属 否定句,故其后的简短问句应用肯定式,而非否定式。 I don't believe that he can translate this book, can he?

.

.

(2)当主句的主语为第二、三人称时,其后的简短问句则应与主句相一致(此 时,否定只看主句,与从句无关) 。 Your sister supposes she needs no help, doesn't she? 4. had better 或 have 陈述部分有 had better, 或其中的 had 表示完成时态时,疑问句应用 hadn ’ t 等开头: You ’d better get up early, had’t you? 其他情况句中有 have 时疑问句应用 don't 等开头 如 have 表示“有”的时候,有两种形式: ( have 表示有可用 do 或 have 来 改写) -He has two sisters, doesn ’t she? =He has two sisters, hasn’t she? -He doesn't have any sisters, does he? 5. 祈使句 当陈述部分是祈使句时,疑问句要根据语气来表达,分三种情况: 1)一般情况下用 will you 或 won't you 。 Give me a hand, will you? Leave all the things as they are, won ’ t you? 2) 以 Let's (听者包括在内)开头的祈使句,前肯后可肯可否,疑问句必须 用 shall we ( shall 只用于第一人称) ; 只有以 Let us ( 听话人不被包括在 “ us ” 里面)或 Let me 开头的祈使句,问句才用 will you 。 Let us know the time of your arrival, will you? Let's try again, shall we? Let me help you, will you? Let ’s have a look on your book , shall we ? 3) 当陈述句是否定的祈使句时,问句用 will you 。 e.g. don ’t make much noise, will you?

.

.

专四词汇部分 专四的词汇题包含的题型和考点 1. 近义词辨析题。 如表示 " 真实的 " 的形容词可以有 true, genuine, real, 等等,不一而足,但含 义上彼此有差异,用法也不尽相同。比如 true 强调 "符合真理的,正确的 ", genuine 强调 " 非人造的,货真价实的 " ,比如 genuine leather 纯牛皮, real 则强调事件的真实性,可理解为 " 显示的,并非虚假的 " ,此时就要注意结合 考题的上下文,选择符合要求的词汇。 66. Our office has recently ___ to a new computer system. (2011) A. altered B. converted C. transformed D. modified 68. Our school library is __ closed for repairs. A. shortly B. quickly C. temporiarily D. rapidly 74. You can go to a travel agency and ask for a holiday___. A. introduction B. advertisement C. book D. brochure 75. The city government is building more roads to the increasing number of cars. A. accommodate B. receive C. accept D. hold 76. They’ve lifted a two -year-long economic on the country. A. enclosure B. restriction C. blockade D. prohibition 67. Mary and John are busy looking for a hotel for their wedding _____ . A. meal B . snack C . refreshment D . banquet 72. Most Chinese people went to work by bike within living _____ . A. mind B . knowledge C . memory D . scope 75. Slavery was ____ in America in the 19th century . A. abolished B . cancelled C . abandoned D . terminated 77. The boys in the dorm ____ a coin to decide who would clean the floor . A. held B . tossed C . put D . collected 79. A(n)____ shape has four straight sides at 90 °to each other, two of which are much longer than the other two . A. square B . oval C . oblong D . circular 2.词根词缀辨析题: 英语单词的构成可包含三个成分: 前缀 ( prefix ) + 词根 ( root ) + 后缀 ( suffix ) 。 如 respectable (体面的,高尚的,值得尊敬的)这个词, re-是前缀,表示 " 重复做某动作 " ; spect 是词根,意思是一个动作 --"看 " ;而 -able 是后缀,它 首先揭示了该单词的词性是形容词 (adjective) ,另外,这个形容词后缀的意 思是 " 能够。 。 。的,值得。 。 。的 "。而英语中,很多单词互相之间含有相同的 词根, 即含义上有一定的联系性, 此时就比较难判断词义用法。 如 respectable 的同根词有 respectful (态度恭敬的)和 respective (各自的) 。这三个单词 的低跟都是 spect ,拼写也有一定的雷同,但词义相去甚远。这类含有相同 词根的词汇,是考生应当重点积累的,并且背单词的时候要学会掌握常见 词根、前缀、后缀的含义,从而在做这类辨析 题时善于运用构词法知识判 断。 3. 词组题:

.

.

动词词组永远是考试中的重点,尤其要注意同一个动词与不同介词组合, 可结合成含义各不相同的词组。 以动词 give 为例, give out 表示 " 分发物品 " 、 give off 表示 " 散发出光芒或气味 " 、 give up 表示 " 放弃 " ; give in 表示 " 屈服, 投降,让步 " 。考题中常给出一个动词,而后面用什么介词与之搭配,则需 要考生在选项中选词填空。因此,考生在背单词时,需要专门花时间积累 动词 + 介词词组。 69. John is up to his eyes in work at the moment. The underlined part means ___. A. very excited B. very busy C. very tired D. very efficient 68. Mini-skirts first _____ in the 1960s . A. caught out B . caught in C . caught on D . caught up 70. The earthquake refugees are ____ for food and blankets . A. desirous B . ambitious C . seriously off D . badly off 71 . When Linda heard the good news she tried to sound casual , but her excitement was obvious . The underlined part means _____ . A. uncaring B . disinterested C . without plan D . without warning 73. The speaker was very good at ____ his ideas during the discussion . A. putting aside B . putting across C . putting back D . putting off 74. The food is good at this hotel , but the ____ is poor ; the waiters don ’ t seem to be well trained . A. maintenance B . repair C . charge D . service 4. 从句引导词题: 英语的从句包括主语从句、表语从句、状语从句、定语从句、同位语从句、 宾语从句等,而根据从句部分在句子里不同的表情达意作用,又可细分为 更多类型,如状语从句包含表示原因的原因状语从句、表示时间概念的时 间状语从句、表示假设的条件状语从句;根据从句的性质的语义重要性、 语气强弱又可进一步细分,比如定语从句可细分为限定性定于从句,此时 从句含义与主句紧密相关;以及非限定性定于从句,此时从句含义与主句 联系不紧密,仅起到补充说明作用。综上所述,各种从句都有各自常用的 引导词。如限定性定于从句常用 that 引导,非限定性定语从句常用 which 引导,条件状语从句常用 if 引导,主语从句常用 what 引导,等等。考生应 该根据上述从句分类,搞清常用引导词。 5. 逻辑连词题: 这类题目通常在选项中出现表示不同逻辑关系的连词,如表示转折关系的 but, 表 示 递 进 关 系 的 then , 表 示 并 列 关 系 的 and, or, 表 示 因 果 关 系 的 because, since, therefore 等,要求考生理解上下文的逻辑关系,再选择符合 要求的连词。应对这类题目,考生要把上述常考逻辑关系涉及到的连词反 复熟悉。 6. 形近词、副词辨析题: 指在选项种故意安插拼写形式相近,具有混淆功能的单词,让考生辨别。 如 virtual 与 visual ,前者表示 " 实质上的 " ,后者表示 " 视觉的 " 。这类题目需 要考生有扎实的词汇背记基本功,才能做到对单词的拼写形式有清晰的判 断力。
.

.

67. The crowd went ___ as soon as the singer stepped onto the stage. A. wild B. emotional C. uncontrolled D. unrestricted 73. It was really of you to remember my birthday. A. grateful B. thoughtful C. considerable D. generous 78. His plan is carefully prepared and full of details, so it is a very one. A. elaborate B. refined C. ambitious D. complex 79. The girl’s voice was so low that we could hear her. A. seldom B. almost C. only D. barely 80. She must have been pretty ____ to fall for such an old trick. A. interested B. gullible C. enthusiastic D. shrewd 69. That outburst at the meeting was ____ of his bad temper . A. illustrative B . explanatory C . expository D . revealing 78. The patterns of spoken language are ____ from those of writing . A. distinct B . distinctive C . distinguished D . distinguishing 80. I’ d like to have a ____ word with his parents . A. peaceful B . quiet C . silent D . personal 7. 词义、词组或句子理解题 70. Victoria bumped into her brother quite by chance in the supermarket. The underlined part means ___. A. risk B. opportunity C. possibility D. luck 71. “ Look at those pretty girls’ skirts” is , because it is not clear whether the girls or the skirts are “pretty’. A. ambiguous B. hidden C. indirect D. indistinct 77. Everyone is surprised that she has fallen out with her boy friend. The underlined part means___. A. left B. quarreled C. attacked D. defeated 66.The girl cannot come to school today on account of the flu .The underlined part means _____. A. concerning B . because of C . as to D . for 76. Mercifully, I was able to complete all I had to do within a few days . The underlined part means _____. A. efficiently B . surprisingly C . fortunately D . shortly

句子 从句 词组 词类 单词 实词
.

sentence clause phrase part of speech word notional word

英语语法专业术语 非限定动词 infinite verb 使役动词 causative verb 感官动词 verb of senses 动态动词 event verb 静态动词 state verb 感叹词 exclamation

.

虚词 structural word 单纯词 simple word 派生词 derivative 复合词 compound 词性 part of speech 名词 noun 专有名词 proper noun 普通名词 common noun 可数名词 countable noun 不可数名词 uncountable noun 抽象名词 abstract noun 具体名词 concrete noun 物质名词 material noun 集体名词 collective noun 个体名词 individual noun 介词 preposition 连词 conjunction 动词 verb 主动词 main verb 及物动词 transitive verb 不及物动词 intransitive verb 系动词 link verb 助动词 auxiliary verb 情态动词 modal verb 规则动词 regular verb 不规则动词 irregular verb 短语动词 phrasal verb 限定动词 finite verb 分数词 fractional numeral 形式 form 单数形式 singular form 复数形式 plural form 限定动词 finite verb form 非限定动词 non-finite verb form 原形 base form 从句 clause 从属句 subordinate clause 并列句 coordinate clause 名词从句 nominal clause 定语从句 attributive clause 状语从句 adverbial clause 宾语从句 object clause 主语从句 subject clause 同位语从句 appositive clause
.

形容词 adjective 副词 adverb 方式副词 adverb of manner 程度副词 adverb of degree 时间副词 adverb of time 地点副词 adverb of place 修饰性副词 adjunct 连接性副词 conjunct 疑问副词 interrogative adverb 关系副词 relative adverb 代词 pronoun 人称代词 personal pronoun 物主代词 possessive pronoun 反身代词 reflexive pronoun 相互代词 reciprocal pronoun 指示代词 demonstrative pronoun 疑问代词 interrogative pronoun 关系代词 relative pronoun 不定代词 indefinite pronoun 物主代词 possessive pronoun 名词性物主代词 nominal possessive pronoun 形容词性物主代词 adjectival possessive pronoun 冠词 article 定冠词 definite article 不定冠词 indefinite article 数词 numeral 基数词 cardinal numeral 序数词 ordinal numeral 一般疑问句 general question 特殊疑问句 special question 选择疑问句 alternative question 附加疑问句 tag question 反义疑问句 disjunctive question 修辞疑问句 rhetorical question 感叹疑问句 exclamatory question 存在句 existential sentence 肯定句 positive sentence 基本句型 basic sentence pattern 否定句 negative sentence 祈使句 imperative sentence 省略句 elliptical sentence 感叹句 exclamatory sentence

.

时间状语从句 adverbial clause of time 地点状语从句 adverbial clause of place 方式状语从句 adverbial clause of manner 让步状语从句 adverbial clause of concession 原因状语从句 adverbial clause of cause 结果状语从句 adverbial clause of result 目的状语从句 adverbial clause of purpose 条件状语从句 adverbial clause of condition 真实条件状语从句 adverbial clause of real condition 非真实条件状语从句 adverbial clause of unreal condition 含蓄条件句 adverbial clause of implied condition 错综条件句 adverbial clause of mixed condition 简单句 simple sentence 并列句 compound sentence 复合句 complex sentence 并列复合句 compound complex sentence 陈述句 declarative sentence 时态 tense 过去将来时 past future tense 过去将来进行时 past future continuous tense 过去将来完成时 past future perfect tense 一般现在时 present simple tense 一般过去时 past simple tense 一般将来时 future simple tense 现在完成时 past perfect tense 过去完成时 present perfect tense 将来完成时 future perfect tense 现在进行时 present continuous
.

句子成分 members of sentences 主语 subject 谓语 predicate 宾语 object 双宾语 dual object 直接宾语 direct object 间接宾语 indirect object 复合宾语 complex object 同源宾语 cognate object 补语 complement 主补 subject complement 宾补 object complement 表语 predicative 定语 attribute 同位语 appositive 状语 adverbial 句法关系 syntactic relationship 并列 coordinate 从属 subordination 修饰 modification 前置修饰 pre-modification 后置修饰 post-modification 限制 restriction 双重限制 double-restriction 非限制 non-restriction 数 number 单数形式 singular form 复数形式 plural form 规则形式 regular form 不规则形式 irregular form 格 case 普通格 common case 所有格 possessive case 主格 nominative case 宾格 objective case 性 gender 阳性 masculine 阴性 feminine 通性 common 中性 neuter 人称 person 第一人称 the first person 第二人称 the second person 第三人称 the third person

.

tense 语气 mood 过去进行时 past continuous tense 陈述语气 indicative mood 将来进行时 future continuous tense 祈使语气 imperative mood 过去将来进行时 虚拟语气 subjunctive mood past future continuous tense 否定 negation 现在完成进行时 否定范围 scope of negation present perfect continuous tense 全部否定 full negation 过去完成进行时 局部否定 partial negation past perfect continuous tense 转移否定 shift of negation 语态 voice 语序 order 主动语态 active voice 就近原则 principle of proximity 被动语态 passive voice 强调 emphasis 自然语序 natural order 重复 repetition 倒装语序 inversion 主谓一致 subject-predicate 全部倒装 full inversion agreement 部分倒装 partial inversion 语法一致 grammatical agreement 直接引语 direct speech 概念一致 notional agreement 间接引语 indirect speech 自由直接引语 free direct speech 自由间接引语 free indirect speech 一致 agreement

不规则动词表 1)A---A---A 型(现在式、过去式和过去分词同形,保持不变,除进行式外)

动词原形 过去式 过去分词 意思
cost cut hit put read # hurt cost cut hit put read hurt cost cut hit put read hurt 花费 割,切 打 放下 读 受伤

let let let 让 2) A---A---B 型(现在式和过去式同形) 动词原型 过去式 过去分词 意思 打 beat beat beaten 3) A---B---A 型(现在式和过去分词同形) 动词原形 过去式 过去分词 意思 come become run
.

came became ran

come become run

来到 变 跑

.

overcome overcame overcome 征服,打败 4)A---B---B 型(过去式与过去分词同形) ① 在动词原形后加一个辅音字母 d 或 t。 动词原形 过去式 过去分词 意思 burn learn mean burnt meant burnt meant 燃烧 含义是 learned / learnt learned / learnt 学习

听见 heard heard hear ② 把动词原形的最后一个辅音字母“d”改为“t”。 动词原形 过去式 过去分词 意思 build lend send built lent sent built lent sent 建筑 借 传送

花费 spent spent spend ③ 其他不规则的各种变化。 动词原形 pay say buy think feel sweep 过去式 paid said bought thought felt swept 过去分词 paid said bought thought felt swept understood caught found held made shot smelt / 意思 动词原 过去式 形 laid brought fought slept kept stood won taught got left met dug shone / 过去分词 laid brought fought slept kept stood won taught got left met dug shone / 意 思 下 蛋 带 来 战 斗 睡 觉 保 持 站 胜 利 教 得 到 离 开 遇 见 挖 发

付钱 lay 说 买 bring fight

思考 sleep 觉得 keep 扫 stand

understand understood catch find hold make shoot smell
.

理解 win 抓住 teach 发现 get 握 leave

caught found held made shot smelt /

制造 meet 射击 dig 嗅, 闻 shine

.

smelled

smelled

shined

shined

光 有

sat sat 坐下 have had had sit 5)A---B---C 型(三词不同形) ① 在动词原形后加-n 或-en 构成过去分词 。 动词原形 过去式 过去分词 意思 动词原形 过去式 过去分词 意思 eat give see ride throw grow ate gave saw rode threw grew eaten given seen ridden thrown grown 吃 给 看见 骑 生长 fall take write drive know fell took fallen taken 落下

拿,记录,拍摄 写 驾驶 吹 知道 拉,绘画,抽签

wrote written drove driven blew knew drew blown known drawn

抛,扔 blow

showed shown 展示 draw show ② 过去式加-n 或-en 构成过去分词。 动词原形 过去式 过去分词 意思 speak break choose forget spoke spoken broke broken chose chosen 说话 破碎 选择

forgot forgotten 忘记

froze frozen 凝固 freeze ③ 把单词在重读音节中的元音字母“i”变成“a”(过去式)和“u”(过去分词) 。 动词原形 过去式 过去分词 意思 begin ring sing sink swim began begun rang sang sank rung sung sunk 开始 按铃 唱 沉 游泳

swam swum

喝 drank drunk drink ④ 其他不规则动词的变化。 动词原形 过去式 过去分词 意思 be (am, is) was be (are) do go lie wear were did went lay wore been been done gone lain worn 是 是 做 去 躺 穿

.



热文推荐
猜你喜欢
友情链接: 医学资料大全 农林牧渔 幼儿教育心得 小学教育 中学 高中 职业教育 成人教育 大学资料 求职职场 职场文档 总结汇报